They all need to work toward a new, inclusive environment. It is thus clear that while figures like Combs and other celebrities became central to spreading information about the case, they did so at the behest of ordinary people, mostly African American members of an often ignored counterpublic who tweeted at them asking for support and help. If a dead unarmed teen and an angry racist with a smoking gun is too subtle a clue, what isn’t?” From the Combs and Maher tweets we see how the network valued both action and outrage in relation to Martin’s murder. On his way home, he was confronted by George Zimmerman, a member of a neighborhood watch group, who fatally shot him. Gray asserts that gaming culture and infrastructure is an extension of systemic racist policies and practices that oppress gamers of color. TWiB! This advocacy reflects the diversity of ways in which Twitter became a useful tool in the aftermath of Martin’s killing. The next most retweeted and mentioned accounts were those of Robert Zimmerman, George Zimmerman’s brother and family spokesperson (@rzimmermanjr, 1,292 retweets and mentions), and Benjamin Crump, the lawyer representing Trayvon Martin’s family (@AttorneyCrump, 807 retweets and mentions). Korn’s study looked at all of the posts to the Tumblr iftheygunnedmedown.tumblr.com. The videos shot by bystanders would prove important to the case, particularly because of the discrepancies between the officers’ accounts of what happened and that of other witnesses. Black Lives Matter | A hashtag that turned into a rights movement . In particularly, there is a specific notion of religiosity in the black community that mediates your engagement with movements that might not otherwise share that religiosity. And they abetted white fragility in depictions that would comforting whites and reduce their stress about racism. Contributors asked, Would I be portrayed as a song brother, cousin, friend, husband… or as a criminal and menace? Examples of Weiner tweets that circulated widely in the network include “Natalie Jackson: ‘A Black 17-year-old child should be able to walk home from the store & not be shot.’ #TrayvonMartin” and “Guy: #TrayvonMartin died after experiencing child’s worst fear: ‘to be followed on the way home in the dark by a stranger.’ #ZimmermanTrial.” The popularity of these tweets in the network show how news reporting that amplified the arguments being made by members of the prosecution were favored over those made by Zimmerman’s defense team — which Weiner spent equal time reporting on, but which received far fewer retweets. While less central to the network than these Black women celebrities, the rapper-producer Diddy Combs’s tweet sharing the previously discussed Change.org petition was popular in the network, along with a tweet from Real Time HBO host Bill Maher in which the comedian stated, “No probable cause in #TrayvonMartin murder? Florida? Independent and Black media such as Global Grind and the Tom Joyner Morning Show also became instrumental in making Trayvon Martin a household name. All of this is moving toward a Digital Black Feminism and reframing activism. However, unlike the similar accounts in the pretrial network, the @realWillSmith donation-for-retweet promise was extremely short-lived, lasting only hours, compared to several days for the accounts that trended in the pretrial network. He says race was not a factor in George Zimmerman killing Martin. Building on the popular #Planking and #Tebowing memes, the hashtag #Trayvoning was used by mostly white youth to post pictures of themselves posed as if dead with Skittles and AriZona Iced Tea in their hands. Steele carefully frames this as “Digital Black Feminism,” building on literatures of black oral culture, alternative publics, black feminism in response to exclusion, and voice and democratic participation. A lone hashtag might not look very mighty, but when used en masse, the symbols can become incredibly powerful activism tools. The Zimmerman camp’s use of PayPal and later Twitter, and the “trayvoning” meme, illustrate some of the ways hashtags and social media can be used to defend or dismiss injustices even as counterpublics work to resolve them. @BET also frequently tweeted about the inner workings of the trial but included reports on Martin’s family “asking for prayers,” tweets that highlighted inconsistencies in the way police handled Martin’s death, and comparisons of Martin’s death to that of Jordan Davis, the Black teen killed the same year as Martin by a white man after a dispute over loud music in a gas station parking lot. Organizers used Twitter, a fledgling platform at the time, to inform community members when and where to meet for the first protest of Grant’s death on January 7, 2009. Despite the Florida “stand your ground” law that Zimmerman’s defense successfully used, Alexander was found guilty of aggravated assault with a lethal weapon and sentenced to twenty years in prison. Game nights and Zoom … Posts. Cooper’s most influential tweet in the pretrial network read, “What I question is why #TrayvonMartin’s shooter instantly called him ‘suspicious’ and said ‘these a..holes, they always get away.’ @AC360 8p.” Here Cooper reveals his own suspicion of racial bias, though he avoids naming it explicitly. We see this in how the story was linked, in particular, to other cases of anti-Black violence that occurred both before and after Martin’s killing. From Standing Rock to Syria, drones are being used to hold the powerful to account. was there: showing the disconnect between mass media coverage and the reality on the ground. The phrase "Black Lives Matter" is being used now as more than just a hashtag -- it's a rallying cry. Pass! Video game activism requires the mobilization of both users and designers. It’s been nearly two weeks and the Sanford Police have refused to arrestGeorge Zimmerman. She found that 98% of the images contributed were black—half men, half women. In this case, we are talking about blogging to transgress. Notably, this set of Black celebrity influencers is markedly younger than those that appeared in the pretrial network. In this network we also see the rise of established advocacy groups to a central position including the NAACP and members of its board, and the hacker collective Anonymous. The most popular account, with nearly twice the retweets and mentions of any other account in the network, belonged to Jeff Weiner, a central Florida journalist who live-tweeted the trial from inside the courtroom (@JeffWeinerOS, with 2,094 retweets and mentions). This eighteen-month period allows us to examine themes that emerged immediately after Zimmerman’s acquittal, as well as those that surfaced after the initial media frenzy over the verdict dissipated. 06/15/2015 11:24 am ET Updated Dec 06, 2017 There isn't much that I can say about the Rachel Dolezal situation that hasn't already been said. Approximately three-quarters of the tweets in the posttrial network were sent in the days immediately following Zimmerman’s acquittal as advocacy organizations like the NAACP, Black media outlets, and celebrities like Rihanna commented on the verdict, subsequent protests, and ongoing legal action against Zimmerman. On the day after Zimmerman’s acquittal, Rihanna’s short tweet “Only in America! Critical Race Theory posits that racism is daily and embedded in American society. Between March 10, 2012, and February 15, 2015 (our data collection window), the hashtag #TrayvonMartin appeared in more than three million tweets generated by nearly two million unique users. Simpson, Black Femininity and Sexuality: black women cannot show off their bodies in anyway because it is perceived as slutty. Email us ️ legendaryrootz.com. The murders of Kiwane Carrington, Ramarley Graham, Aaron Campbell, Rekia Boyd, Aiyana Jones, and Raymond Allen were discussed and debated by means of co-occurring hashtags between 2009 and 2012, but it was the 2012 murder of Trayvon … Though the NAACP, which is a legacy Black civil rights organization, and Anonymous, which at the time was one of the most followed radical activist accounts across different issue areas, may seem like strange bedfellows, here they both serve to communicate the all too common miscarriage of justice that the Zimmerman acquittal reflected. In this case hashtags has been used to access vital information and news update on the topic. Kishonna L. Gray talks about activist gaming in service to Blacks Lives Matter. Really?..everytime you speak you r slandering a young man who can no longer speak TRUTH. 1,135 posts; 112k followers; 1,528 following; Legendary Rootz |Black Culture Black Owned Founder: @raedontplay You are legendary and so are your rootz Shop Black Culture Apparel + Home Tings Need help? In addition to these accounts discussing the Zimmerman trial, the trial network also includes bots and other opportunistic accounts that exploited public interest in the trial to make money or promote products. Additional Twitter sharing of the Change.org petition by celebrities like Cher and John Legend helped push the number of signatures past one million. Their social network raised the funds to send them. Notably, Weiner has a fairly modest following on Twitter but was elevated in this network owing to his close proximity and access to the case. Trayvon Martin’s murder was initially covered, briefly, in local media outlets. Non-gender binary spaces emerge in digital black feminist spaces. This suggests that users became relatively more savvy over time about identifying hoaxes, and consequently hoax accounts were less influential in the discourse during the trial network than they were previously. However, you may find that there are much more relevant hashtags for your particular posts. One account not like the others in content made it into a position of influence in the posttrial network. In general, #iftheygunnedmedown was successful at raising consciousness about media bias, and the negative portrayal of black culture. These are categorically arranged so that other online users can … Further, this linkage is used to make the point that little has changed in the treatment of Black bodies in U.S. society despite the supposed racial advances of post–civil rights America. We mark the digital documentation and activism around Grant’s January 2009 killing by Bay Area Rapid Transit police as a starting point for contemporary digital racial justice organizing. In the posttrial network Martin’s case is most frequently connected, through co-occurring hashtags, to cases of police brutality. In May and June, the hashtag was tweeted an average of 3.7 million times a day. Using what political sociologist Paolo Gerbaudo calls the “choreography of assembly,” which combines traditional on-the-ground activism with technology-based coordination, Oakland residents tweeted the positions of police blockades and helped those on the ground navigate the city streets. While Generation X Black celebrity discourse in the pretrial network advocated for the justice system in a hopeful way that presumed it could serve Trayvon Martin’s family justice, these millennial Black celebrity accounts contributed to a discourse in the posttrial network that framed the justice system itself as impossibly corrupt and unable to value Black lives appropriately. In this discourse, although Zimmerman was not an officer of the law, users make the connection between the ideologies that support community watch initiatives and the criminalization of Black men generally, and name the complicity and guilt of police and courts in protecting not only each other but white vigilantes who use similar logics. … But also your employees can use the same hashtag to share their work experiences, making your company more … How can video games further the causes of marginalized communities? This new on-site reporting was a result of receiving tweets from their audience, saying they didn’t trust the mainstream media coverage of Ferguson and wanted the TWiB! And its important to remember that even in studying marginalized communities, there are those that are even more marginalized. Co-occurrence helps us tell the story of how members of the #TrayvonMartin network understood Martin’s killing in relation to other stories they deemed important both at the time and in the following years. Steele studied the blogging community For Harriet, which functions as a kind of “digital barbershop,” an enclave that represents a particular context of culture necessary to gain entry. @AC360 8p, 10p.” In this tweet, Cooper calls for reflection and response from his mainstream audience and shares his own perspective, framing the crime against Martin as one based in racial animus while still preserving the luster of objective journalistic inquiry. Monáe’s tweet also coincided with the Million Hoodie March, organized by Daniel Maree and others in New York City. Journalist Jeff Weiner, the most central node in the trial network, maintained this position through his dogged reporting on the case and trial and his frequent posts. Now it's #trayvonmartin! The top 20 most retweeted accounts included those of Martin’s mother, Sybrina Fulton (@SybrinaFulton), the Martin family lawyer, Benjamin Crump (@attorneycrump), the journalist Anderson Cooper (@andersoncooper, @AC360), and Black celebrities, including Gabrielle Union, Taraji P. Henson, Tichina Arnold, and Diddy Combs. The most retweeted accounts also included several parody accounts that exploited the opportunity for public attention by tweeting false promises of money or political action to garner retweets. 112.4k Followers, 1,528 Following, 1,135 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Legendary Rootz |Black Culture (@legendaryrootz) legendaryrootz. Moreover, transferring offline black oral culture online represents efficiency of communication rather than perceived deficiencies. The murders of Kiwane Carrington, Ramarley Graham, Aaron Campbell, Rekia Boyd, Aiyana Jones, and Raymond Allen were discussed and debated by means of co-occurring hashtags between 2009 and 2012, but it was the 2012 murder of Trayvon Martin that solidified Twitter hashtags as a crucial organizing tool for racial justice activists. The author of ‘Contraception: A Concise History’ discusses the history and future of contraceptive technology. Some people are upset that she masqueraded as a Black woman and profited financially and socially from that; some people are flattered that a white woman so immersed herself … On the day of the acquittal, for example, Anonymous tweeted, “No Justice for #TrayvonMartin. In a summary of trends, Twitter said the hashtag #COVID19 and other variations were tweeted nearly 400 million times, while #StayHome was the third biggest hashtag of the year. One person anonymously submitted footage to local television station KTVU, which broadcast the unedited video and later posted it to YouTube. In coordination with the march, ordinary people and celebrities across the country showed their solidarity with Martin’s family by posting selfies donning hoodies, commenting on the banal nature of the clothing that was being discussed in the media by conservative pundits like Geraldo Rivera as “thug wear.” The march spurred more celebrity support from rappers Nelly and Sean “Diddy” Combs. Murder is murder” to “@rzimmermanjr The Zimmermans think only they have the right to voice their opinions …” and “@rzimmermanjr Man Fuck your brother!” Here we see the interventionist counternarratives that arose from the network in response to the presentation of Zimmerman’s defense, as well as the outrage in the network directed at Zimmerman generally. It was used to spread awareness and empower people to fight for gender equality. Here we extended the collection of tweets from the beginning of the Martin story’s visibility through the years following Zimmerman’s acquittal. Dialectic of self and community needs is a common theme. Beyond Hashtags tells the story of an influential subsection of these networks, an assemblage of podcasting, independent media, Instagram, Vine, Facebook, and the network of Twitter users that has come to be known as “Black Twitter.” Florini looks at how black Americans use these technologies often simultaneously to create a space to reassert their racial identities, forge community, organize … George zimmerman is the new johannes mehserle smh #rip #trayvonmartin #oscargrant. These tweets, along with ongoing commentary about the Zimmerman verdict, yielded several thousand tweets per day, in our sample, until the end of July 2013, when the pace slowed to between several dozen and around one hundred tweets per day. Notably, while BET is an entertainment, not news, channel, it is the only cable or broadcast network to appear in a dominant position in the trial network, revealing the sourcing preferences of the network during this period and a desire for news about the case that openly contextualized Martin within Black experiences with anti-Black violence and the criminal justice system. Twitter also became a tool to protect Martin’s legacy. To render this large network tractable, we limited our analysis to tweets generated by users who were retweeted or mentioned at least once (thus eliminating network isolates) and divided the data into three networks, each corresponding to important milestones in the history of Trayvon Martin’s death and the subsequent trial and acquittal of George Zimmerman. Follow. @AC360 8p, It is notable that these two Cooper tweets were most frequently shared and responded to in the network, for Cooper also tweeted several tweets during the same time frame that received less attention and interaction. Over the course of the evolution of the hashtag #TrayvonMartin, we identified several notable shifts in discourse and network leadership. © 2020 MIT Center for Civic Media – All rights reserved, Powered by – Designed with the Customizr theme, Religious Hashtags, Memes, and Apps Online: AOIR 16 Liveblog, Online Vigilantes, the Wikipedia GamerGate Controversy, Ethics of Bots at AOIR 16, Racialized Smoking: smoking behavior by blacks is demonized versus seen as cool among whites, Racialized Drinking: blacks drinking expensive champagne is improper, whereas it’s marketing when drunk by whites, Racialized Hands: black people are perceived as showing gang signs whenever they gesture with their hands, Everyday Racism and Black Masculinity: black military members are upstanding citizens in uniform, but prompt the locking nearby car doors when in their civilian clothes, Fearful Black Masculinity: non-smiling black men are criminals you should be afraid of, and so the media finds the angriest photo to depict me, Media Bias and Colorism: the media favors darker skin as scarier, like in the TIME covers of O.J. Hashtags are especially useful for advocacy projects. Some witnesses reported the police attempted to confiscate their phones and footage of the incident, which led to more protests on- and offline. This, combined with retweets by highly followed (real) celebrities who did not initially recognize the hoaxes, allowed the accounts to sustain visibility, collecting followers and retweets for some time. Eighteen years after the police beating of Rodney King, cell-phone videos of the fatal shooting of Oscar Grant spurred a renewed public debate about police brutality and racism, but with user-generated YouTube content that went viral without requiring the attention or the mediation of traditional news outlets. This is clearly illustrated by the top three accounts in the trial network, those of Jeff Weiner, an Orlando Sentinel reporter, who covered the trail from the ground at the local level; Robert Zimmerman, George Zimmerman’s brother and the family spokesman, who primarily appeared in the network as the result of replies from various users challenging his public assertions about the case and trial and denigrating him and his brother; and Benjamin Crump, the Martin family attorney who became central to the network as a result of retweets as other users shared his updates on the case and the general status of the Martin family. Within the #TrayvonMartin network, we can trace the way users respond to discourse that supports or diminishes the severity of this violence and the important role of narrative whereby hashtags are linked together to contextualize, memorialize, and make demands. Feel free … Together these hashtags work within the network to highlight a systemic problem that results in the unnecessary, frequent, and barbaric deaths of Black Americans. This is a liveblog from the “#BlackLivesMatter: At the Intersection of Racial Politics and Digital Activism” panel at AoIR16 on October 22, 2015 in Phoenix, AZ. Because of their high number of retweets, these two parody accounts occupy unusually central positions in the network, in this way more closely resembling the accounts of journalists and celebrities (such as @andersoncooper, @TherealTaraji) than other parody accounts, which tend to appear along the periphery of the network. Are the media choosing problematic images to justify the reason why the person was killed? as a set of tactics matched with a flexible network which is a new form of activist media strategy. A hashtag is created by online users to discuss specific events and relevant issues. Twitter was deployed again in the aftermath of Mehserle’s trial, this time to help demonstrators avoid run-ins with police. The largest of the three networks in our sample, despite spanning the shortest time frame, the precharges network includes 114,431 tweets generated by 83,588 users connected by 109,070 retweets and mentions in our sample. Hashtags were created by Twitter as a means of organizing content and now are found on many social media channels like Google+, Tumblr, Pinterest, Instagram and others. On December 16, 2013 (in a since deleted tweet), Internet activist Suey … And building on the popular #Planking and #Tebowing memes, the hashtag #Trayvoning was used by mostly white youth to post pictures of themselves posed as if dead with Skittles and AriZona Iced Tea in their hands. Activism is not just rooted in game development. Change.org, a website that allows users to create petitions that can be spread via links on different internet platforms, was used by Cunningham to collect more than 10,000 signatures in just a few days. @BETNews reported details of the trial in the form of direct quotations from the prosecution against Zimmerman that tended to center Martin’s innocence and cast doubt on Zimmerman’s version of events, occasionally using all caps to emphasize parts the reporter found important. Here we see an ecosystem that includes not just Twitter but YouTube, online petition sites, and online and offline efforts to gain the attention of journalists and celebrities and to disrupt the business as usual narratives and spaces that normalize anti-Black violence. We see these efforts reflected in the emergent pretrial network leadership. Relatively smaller in size than the networks covering the time periods before and after the trial, the trial network — perhaps predictably — is dominated by accounts tweeting from and about Zimmerman’s trial. The precharges network includes data from March 10, 2012, a little more than three weeks after Trayvon Martin’s death, through April 10, 2012, the day before George Zimmerman was charged with second-degree murder for the shooting. TWiB! While initially the story was framed as a personal one in an effort to construct Trayvon Martin as a legitimate victim, and African American celebrities and sympathetic mainstream journalists and commentators were centered in the network, eventually the story evolved into one in which the very concepts of legal justice and criminal liability were debated at both the local and national level, and then into a story in which Trayvon Martin became a cipher for larger critiques of widespread anti-Black violence and systemic inequality. In addition, the culture of hashtag has developed due to recent Black Lives Matter movement. For example, in addition to the network data described above, we also captured a ranked list of the most common hashtags appearing in tweets with #TrayvonMartin during our data collection window. Just get through as many answers as possible before your time runs out! For example, your own talent brand team can post photos and updates and use your company hashtag. Racial justice activists in Oakland and beyond quickly linked the murder of Grant to the 1991 police beating of Rodney King, which was also captured on video by a witness, who in that case filmed with a trendy-for-the-time 8mm Sony Handycam. Unarmed african-american teen. You should try these good hashtags in your Instagram or Tiktok post to get popular and boost your view. JUSTICE FOR #TrayvonMartin NOW!!!! On March 8 the petition was turned over to Martin’s parents, whose grief, as articulated in their open letter on the petition, galvanized the public, making it the most popular petition on the site for several years. After the acquittal was announced, @106andPark began tweeting images of, and details about, the spontaneous protests occurring in response to the verdict in Times Square and other U.S. cities, ways for those who disagreed with the verdict to take action, and asked followers to “Tweet with us your reactions of the #ZimmermanTrial’s verdict using #106ForTrayvon today as we discuss #TrayvonMartin w/ experts.” The show dedicated an episode to Martin two days after the verdict in which it live-tweeted the reactions of hip hop stars like Young Jeezy to the verdict. This panel features four anti-racist, feminist scholars, showcasing how we as researchers take on the role of documenting and amplifying the work that activists are doing already online. And the posts were 100% visual, including an image or images, 65% with text and 35% with only an image. These videos were viewed 500,000 times in the four days following the shooting, and once KTVU posted the video on its website, it averaged more than a thousand views an hour. An activist orientation in video gaming will require: Gamers for Change, Game Developers for Change, and Game Culture for Change. #Spawn4Good (http://spawnon.me/police-brutality/)Using Twitch, #Spawn4Me ran a live tele-a-thin style stream to crowd fund money in support of families affected by police brutality. took on a new role when they covered Ferguson, using a broad set of citizen journalism tools. The meme does not delegitimize Martin’s victimhood directly, noting that he was unarmed and seventeen, but suggests that a white teen named Marley Lion met a similar fate and unfairly received no outcry or attention. The Orlando Sentinel reported on February 29 that a “boy, 17, [was] shot to death in Sanford during ‘altercation.’” It was not until Martin’s family procured representation by civil rights attorney Benjamin Crump, who in turn brought in a local attorney with connections to a publicist, that they were able to increase the profile of the case through strategic media engagement. The Instagram hashtag limit may guide your choices for the hashtags you use when posting content to your social media accounts. Theoretical OrientationAgency has always been of prime importance to black feminists. The shooting of Grant motivated spontaneous protests as people in the Oakland area took to the streets to express their outrage. Cnn was reporting that everything was quiet one night while this week Blackness! History ’ discusses the History and future of contraceptive technology gaming will:! 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